These procedures are most successful when the compression fracture is in the acute or subacute stage.
Zygapophysial joints and ligamentum flavum hyperplasia, lamina thickening, vertebral arch neck deformity, hyperostosis, and intervertebral disc bulge or protrusion are the main causes of canal stenosis or lateral recess stenosis, though the canal volume is also related to congenital development.
Seatbelt injuries or Chance fractures typically occur in the upper lumbar spine.
Spine,— In the 17 women with radiograph follow-up, curve progression was closely related to shrinkage. A lateral displacement of the cephalad vertebral body with respect to the caudad vertebral body is called a right or left lateral listhesis.
The clinical outcome was excellent in 73 patients Certain types of inflammatory arthritides, including ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, reactive arthritis and arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease, have a predilection for involvement of the SI joints.
Rotatory subluxation may occur in any segment of DLS, though it is mostly seen in the top vertebra or its immediately superior vertebra. Radiographs become abnormal when an infection leads to significant bone or endplate destruction.
The most common non-primary malignancies in the spine are metastatic disease and multiple myeloma.