Thus, stereotypical self-perceptions and peer pressure for conformity to gender roles may intensify during adolescence for both males and females Massad, ; Hill and Lynch, ; Galambos et al.
Study 1. The current research measured prescriptive gender stereotypes for children, adults, and elderly men and women in 3 studies to a compare how prescriptive gender stereotypes change across age groups and b address whether stereotypes of males are more restrictive than stereotypes of females.
These findings demonstrate the applicability of prescriptive stereotypes to different age groups. The target age groups included toddlers, elementary-aged, adolescent, young adult, adult, and elderly males and females. Specifically, the angry, moral outrage created by the violation of prescriptive stereotypes can lead to backlash, or social or economic penalties for the stereotype violator e.
That is gender stereotypes have descriptive components, which are beliefs about what men and women typically do.
No perfect body! Although there were fewer prescriptive than descriptive stereotypes about children in this research, these findings also show that prescriptive gender stereotypes exist for children of elementary-school age in ways that are consistent with adult prescriptive stereotypes. This prescriptive nature is assumed to stem from the high level of contact and interdependence between men and women e.
Men can also be the recipients of backlash when they violate prescriptive stereotypes by lacking agency and showing weakness Moss-Racusin et al. Research suggests greater restrictions for males are likely for children, but the difference in strength and magnitude of prescriptive gender stereotypes has not been directly tested for specific age groups of children or for adult or elderly stereotypes.